Overseas Launch Four Models Of Agricultural Insurance - Removable Wall Decals Manufacturer
From around the world to see, to carry out agricultural insurance has 4 modes: first, the Soviet Union's government-led social security-type model. Government to set up insurance agencies specializing in agriculture, and provide some funds and a lot of management costs.
Second, preferential policies in Western Europe model. Mutual Insurance Society of competing insurance companies and commercial contractors agricultural insurance, agricultural insurance, the government is not directly involved in the operation, but to the agricultural insurance policies with tax concessions.
Third, U.S. national and private, government and civil interconnected two-tier system of agricultural insurance mode. Crop insurance, crop insurance companies by the U.S. Federal (FCIC), private insurance companies, crop insurance associations to participate in running, compulsory and voluntary insurance, combined.
By the U.S. government crop insurance premium subsidies, subsidies for operating expenses, reinsurance, tax form to support. In 2000, U.S. agricultural insurance subsidy averaged about 53% of net premiums (average per acre premium subsidy of 6.6 U.S. dollars). Catastrophe risk insurance compulsory crop insurance, subsidies for catastrophe insurance, all premiums, others are voluntary. Crop insurance for farmers in the year down 25% or more disaster, the federal crop insurance companies can get the maximum amount of compensation. And, as long as the other insurance available to participate in catastrophe insurance, the mandatory and optional integrated well, farmers have a broad range of options, and have the confidence of the insured.
U.S. government contractors to provide crop insurance for private insurance companies 20% -25% of operating costs subsidized. From 1980 to 1999, the federal government's financial subsidies to crop insurance, the cumulative total reached 15 billion U.S. dollars, only in 1999 reached 2.24 billion U.S. dollars. Government, through the federal crop insurance, private insurance companies to provide proportional reinsurance and excess of loss reinsurance protection. Federal Crop Insurance Act expressly provides federal, state and other local governments exempt from all taxes on the crop insurance.
Fourth, non-profit organization operating the government subsidies and reinsurance to support the Japanese model. Under the "Agricultural Disaster Compensation Law," Japan's agricultural insurance organizations in the forms of "3" system villagers Masonic system, that municipalities undertake a variety of agricultural insurance directly to the agricultural mutual aid associations, mutual aid associations bear the agricultural insurance business, all sub- prefectural federation of Freemasonry, the Masonic Association assume reinsurance National Agricultural Insurance Association, the triple risk protection mechanisms, will be distributed nationwide agricultural risks. In 1952, Japan also established by the Department of Agriculture mutual relief associations as members of the "Agricultural Mutual Relief Fund" to raise funds through the Federation to maintain a variety of agricultural insurance income and expenditure over a longer period of balance.
Japanese agricultural insurance, compulsory insurance and voluntary insurance to the combination approach. According to legislation, once established in a regional mutual aid organizations, all of the intended crop acreage scale farmers had joined the force to participate in agricultural insurance; sericulture insurance, large livestock (cattle, horses, etc.) insurance is also subject to compulsory insurance coverage. Small-scale crop farmers, you can choose whether to participate in crop insurance, is to participate in local mutual aid association or participation in the commercial crop insurance. Fruit trees, horticultural crops, livestock, poultry farmers insurance of their own. Rice cultivation by the Government directive, wheat, farming households, do not automatically participate in the insurance coverage. Farmers to participate in the insurance, only take a small part of the premium, most of the Government. Mutual aid organizations at all levels to undertake insurance generally 10% -20% duty, the Government has to bear 50% -70%. In case of serious disasters, the government takes 80% -100% of insurance claims. Therefore, the Japanese government for agricultural insurance expenditure increased year by year, the total expenditure of the Ministry of Fisheries Agriculture and Forestry 7% -17%.
Foreign agricultural insurance mode from the analysis shows that agricultural insurance are in fact carried out under the government subsidies, either directly on the rate of subsidy, either direct damages, is a policy insurance. It's becoming a policy of insurance, agricultural production depends not only on the basis of the status of the national economy, but also because the process of agricultural production and agricultural risks is unique. The scope of agricultural insurance and are subject to multiple risk constraints, the insurance business into a large, compensation rate. As the insurance awareness of farmers is relatively weak, coupled with the affordability of the weak model of agricultural development of commercial insurance industry is difficult. Therefore, the government had to support through relevant policies and regulations to directly promote the development of agricultural insurance.